Cryogenics — the study and use of low-temperature phenomena. Encyclopedia Britannica
Cryogenics dates from 1877 when oxygen was first cooled to the point where it became a liquid. Superconductivity was discovered in 1911. Applications of cryogenics now include the storage and transportation of liquefied gases, food preservation, cryosurgery, rocket fuels, and super-conducting electromagnets.
Generally the science of cryogenics involves temperatures below that which can be reached with conventional refrigeration equipment. Many gases become liquids at these low temperatures.
Cryogenic temperatures range from -238°F (-150°C or 123K) to absolute zero. At low temperatures, matter has unusual properties. Substances that are naturally gases can be liquefied at low temperatures, and metals lose electrical resistance as they get colder.
Gases into Liquid form
All gases, when cooled, condense and some can become liquid. Cryogenic liquids are usually stored in tanks or vacuum insulated flasks, called dewars, after their inventor, Sir James Dewar. The dewar was invented in 1892. Technifab manufactures a standard line of LN2 lab dewars available direct online at www.cryodewars.com.
For more information about Cryogenics refer to other portions of our Cryogenic Library, including: